Thursday, March 26, 2020
Brain Based Learning Environments Paper Brain Based Learning Environments Elton J. Davis PSY 370 Keia Farr January 24th , 2011 Our currant educational system dates back to the Industrial Revolution at a time when our country prepared its people for agricultural work and factory jobs. The school systems and curriculums of the time were centered around the mass production mentality ( www. funderstanding. com/catagory/content/educatiion-history). The education system of that time prepared students to face the demands of the economy of the time. Times have changed and the United States education system has dropped off dramatically in the last several decades in comparison to other countries. The test scores of many Asian and European countries show large disparities in educational achievement. Recent breakthroughs in the many disciplines of Brain Based Learning have showed evidence that our educational systems need to incorporate a more brain based friendly environment into our school curriculums. It has been proven that the learning environment that a student is subjected to has a major impact in the ability of that student to learn. Extensive neurological research has shown how the brain works and different areas of science have used that information to develop suggestions how to incorporate them into learning and educational curriculum s and environments. When educators look to incorporate brain compatible learning environments they need to understand the fundamentals of how the brain works. Neuroscience research offers new insights into how the brain works and how students learn and have prompted the development of new approaches to learning and teaching. We will write a custom essay sample on Brain Based Learning Environments specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Brain Based Learning Environments specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Brain Based Learning Environments specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Brain based learning and the teaching methods to support these methods can be found in four primary categories. The first and most prominent category is right brain left brain approaches followed by approaches that emphasize early brain development, approaches designed to develop multiple intelligences and brain based teaching approaches. Although the concept of brain-based learning has been applied most frequently to the improvement of learning outcomes for special education students. The premise is that boys and girls learn differently and therefore should be educated in separate classrooms where teaching methods and curriculum are suited to their respective learning styles. It is important to note that not all experts embrace the notion that brain- based teaching methods affect improved learning outcomes. In fact, some experts argue that the neuroscience research being used to advance brain based learning today actually supports many of the traditional methods of teaching methods that have already demonstrated their efficacy in affecting improved learning outcomes Jenson, E 2008). For over 2,000 years there have been primitive models of how the brain works. Up until the 1950Ã¢â¬â¢s the brain was compared to an operatorÃ¢â¬â¢s city telephone switchboard. Brain theory in the 1970s concentrated on the the right and left brain. Later, Paul McClean developedÃ a concept of the Triune Brain which refers to the evolution of the human brain in three parts. In this theory McClean hypothesized that survival learning is in the lower brain, emotions were in the middle brain, and higher order thinking took place in the upper brain. Now brain based education has a more complete view of the brain (McClean, P, Triune Brain Theory). During the last two decades neuroscientists have be doing research that has implications for improved teaching practices as they have obtained much information on how the brain works fromÃ autopsies, experiments, and different types of scans MRIs, EEGs, PET and CAT scans. Information has been gleaned as neuroscientists construct clinical studies that use double blind, large, diverse, multi-age, multicultural groups of people to gather reliable information (Wilson, L, Dr. Brain Based Education). The brain is a vastly complex and adaptive system with hundreds of billions of neurons and interneurons that can generate an astronomical number of neural nets, or groups of neurons acting in concert, from which our daily experience is constructed. Many findings seem obvious and intuitive, as one outsider asked me, isnÃ¢â¬â¢t all learning brain-based? For example, we all know intuitively th at the best age to learn a new language is during our early childhood; what neuroscientists call the principle of windows of opportunity. We can accept that all brains are unique and a product of interactions with different environments, generating a lifetime of different and varied experiences; what scientists call plasticity. We can accept the notion that either you use it, or you lose it; new neural pathways are created every time we use our brains in thinking through problems, but are lost forever Ã¢â¬â are pruned Ã¢â¬â if we do not use them (Lackney, J, Dr. , 12 Design Principles Based on Brain Based Learning Research). As our understanding of how the brain works and learns several noted experts from the diverse fields started o design the principles to follow, specifically based on conclusions from research in neuroscience. Professors from major universities have taken this information and incorporated it into books about learning. In accordance with these suggestions classroom practices can be modified by teachers applying new theories of teaching and learning based on recent findings. Some noted authors i n this area are Marian Diamond, U. C. , Berkeley; Howard Gardner, Harvard University; Renate and Geoffrey Caine; Thomas Armstrong; Candace Pert, Eric Jensen; etc. This is the core principles directing brain based education developed by Renate and Geoffrey Caine: The brain is a parallel processor. It can perform several activities at once. * The brain perceives wholes and parts simultaneously. * Information is stored in multiple areas of the brain, and can be retrieved through multiple memory and * neural pathways. * Learning engages the whole body. All learning is mind-body: movement, foods, attention cycles, and * chemicals modulate learning. * Humans search for meaning is innate. * The search for meaning comes through patterning. Emotions are critical to patterning, and drive our attention, meaning and memory. * Meaning is more important than just information. * Learning involves focused attention and peripheral perception. * We have two types of memory: spatial and rote. * We understand best when facts are embedded in natural spatial memory. * The brain is social. It develops better in concert with other brains. * Complex learning is enhanc ed by challenge and inhibited by stress. * Every brain in uniquely organized. * Learning is developmental. (Caine and Caine) There are interactive teaching elements that emerge from these principles. Orchestrated immersion: Learning environments are created that immerse students in a learning experience. Primary teachers build a rainforest in the classroom complete with stuffed animals and cardboard and paper trees that reach to the ceiling. Intermediate teachers take students to a school forest to explore and identify animal tracks in the snow and complete orienteering experiences with a compass. Junior high teachers take a field trip to insurance companies to have students shadow an employee all day. High school teachers of astronomy have students experience weightlessness by scuba diving in the swimming pool. Relaxed alertness: An effort is made to eliminate fear while maintaining a highly challenging environment. Teachers play classical music when appropriate to set a relaxed tone in the classroom. Bright lights are dimmed. Vanilla candles are used to calm students and peppermint scents are used to stimulate the senses. All students are accepted with their various learning styles, capabilities and disabilities. A relaxed accepting environment pervades the room. Children are stretched to maximize their potential. Active processing: The learner consolidates and internalizes information by actively processing it. Information is connected to prior learning. The stage is set before a unit of study is begun by the teacher preparing the students to attach new information to prior knowledge so the new information has something to latch onto. (Jensen; Caine Caine) DÃ¢â¬â¢Arcangelo developed twelve design principles based on brain based research: * Rich, stimulating environments using student created aterials and products are evident on bulletin boards and display areas. * Places for group learning like tables and desks grouped together, to stimulate social skills and cooperative work groups. Have comfortable furniture and couches available for casual discussion areas. Carpeted and areas with large pillows who prefer not the work at a desk or table. * Link indoor and outdoor spaces so students can move about using their motor cortex for more brain oxygenation. Safe places for students to be where threat is reduced, particularly in large urban settings. * Variety of places that provide different lighting, and nooks and crannies. Many elementary children prefer the floor and under tables to work with a partner. * Change displays in the classroom regularly to provide a stimulating situations for brain development. Have students create stage sets where they can act out scenes from their readings or demonstrate a science principle or act out a dialogue between historical figures. Have multiple resources available. Provide educational, physical and a variety of setting within the classroom so that learning activities can be integrated easily. Computers areas, wet areas, experimental science areas should be in close proximity to one another. Multiple functions of learning is our goal. * Flexibility: This common principle of the past is relevant. The teachable moment must be recognized and capitalized upon. Dimensions of flexibility are evident in other principles. Active and passive places: Students need quiet areas for reflection and retreat from others to use intrapersonal intelligences. * Personal space: Students need a home base, a desk, a locker area. All this allows learners to express their unique identity. * The community at large as an optimal learning environment: Teachers need to find ways to fully use city space and natural space to use as a primary learning setting. Technology, distance learning, community and business partnerships, all need to be explored by educational institutions. Enrichment: The brain can grow new connections at any age. Challenging, complex experiences with appropriate feedback are best. Cognitive skills develop better with music and motor skills. (DArcangelo) One of the key tenets of brain-based education is that attention follows emotion, and both music and art often tap into the emotional areas and thus are natural conduits for remembering and connecting information. Mus ic can lower stress, boost learning when used 3 different ways: * as a carrier using melody or beat to encode content,Ã * as arousal to calm down or energize, as a primer to prepare specific pathways for learning content) impacts the immune system, and is an energy source for the brain. Art is an important part of brain-based education in that it provides many learners with avenues of expression and emotional connection and release. It is important at many levels. For instance, it is important in technology in order to create aesthetically pleasing PowerPoint presentations and multi-media displays that showcase work and make the information and facts presented memorable. Art can be metaphoric creating simple icons or images that ground larger more complex ideas. Multicultural awareness is improved through the study of art as it instantly connects viewers to different cultures. Indeed, due to the diverse power and inherent potential of art to create deep emotional connections and aid in memory retrieval, some educators think the arts should be named as the fourth R (Wilson, L (2009) Brain Based Education). Brain research also suggests that the human brain learns best when it is at a balance between stress and comfort. The human brain prefers a high comfort and low threat learning environment. The brain needs to be challenged or have some environmental pressure that generates stress to activate emotions and learning. Stress activates a survival action in the brain. The trick, too much stress and anxiety shuts down opportunities for learning, but too little stress causes the brain to become too relaxed and comfortable to become actively engaged. Educators must create learning environments that are safe to learn and spark enough emotional interest through celebrations and rituals. The state of mind for optimal learning is referred to as relaxed alertness. Eric Jenson, an established author on brain based learning, conducted some interesting research on neurogenesis and stated that boosting neurogenesis is the ultimate low budget anti depressant. Jenson came up with a theory of the three AÃ¢â¬â¢s that matter most, arts, advanced placement curriculum, and activity. Jenson noted the three AÃ¢â¬â¢s will boost school learning environments. Jenson focused on studies that involved Arts, and Physical Education. Jenson found that the arts are an often neglected area of the curriculum that has a dramatic impact on student performance. Jenson found if a musically naive student had their brain scanned, then they were taught to read music, and then taught to play the piano, after fifteen weeks of lessons, a scan of their brain again showed physical changes (Jenson, E (2010) Teaching with Poverty in Mind). In theater, drama and other performance arts, subjects have demonstrated improved emotional intelligence, timing, reflection, respect for diversity, and even higher SAT scores. When compared to those taking no arts courses, the longer they worked at it, the higher the scores of those taking theater and drama scored higher on the widely used college entrance test. Drama teaches emotional intelligences (correlated with better grades), memorization and processing skills (upgrades operating skills) and builds social status and friends (Jenson 2010). Arts are particularly valuable because they build lifelong, transferable skills such as reading. In fact, the implicit learning that arts provide transfers better than the explicit textbook learning of other subjects. Jenson states Ã¢â¬Å"To put it bluntly, arts build a studentÃ¢â¬â¢s operating system as well as anything that is in their schoolÃ¢â¬ (Jenson, E (2010) Teaching with Poverty in Mind). UCLA professor of education Dr. James Catterall analyzed data on more than 25,000 students from the National Educational Longitudinal Survey to determine the relationship of engagement in the arts to student performance and attitudes, and also investigated the impact of intensive involvement in instrumental music on student achievement. She found that students with high levels of arts participation outperform Ã¢â¬Å"arts-poorÃ¢â¬ students by irtually every measure and that high arts participation makes a more significant difference to students from low-income backgrounds than to high-income students. In addition, Catterall found clear evidence that sustained involvement in particular art forms music and theater is highly correlated with success in mathematics and reading. She documented the diffe rence between students of lower socioeconomic status who took music lessons in grades 8-12 when compared to other low SES students who took no music lessons. The former not only increased their math scores significantly but also improved reading, history, and geography by 40%. The arts are particularly valuable for kids from poverty. Another find in brain based research has shown that physical education and athletics are an aspect not associated with learning. Surprisingly, athletic programs have been found to increase rates of academic performance and graduation and to reduce behavioral problems in schools. In addition to improving the health of students and improving reaction times, cardiovascular capacity, muscle strength, body coordination, speed, and a stress response, athletics also enhances cognition and academic outcomes. Fernando Gomez-Pinilla and her team at UCLA found that voluntary exercise increased levels of brain-derived neurotropic factor or (BDNF) in the hippocampus, a brain area involved with learning and memory. Some studies have found strong evidence that in mammals, exercise increase the production of new brain cells and that they become functional. In addition, exercise leads to increased calcium levels in the blood, and that calcium is transported to the Brain where it enhances dopamine synthesis, making the brain sharper for both cognitive problem solving and working memory. The study also found that the increase in BDNF not only supports learning and memory function but BDNF also repairs and maintains neural circuits. As a school administrator, teacher or any member of a school faculty, a question is raised every year how can I improve the schools learning environment? Some of the answers are not that difficult to answer. Brain Based Compatible Learning is a science that is diverse and on the rise. Though it is in its infancy stages, many elite collage programs are shifting more attention to its merits thanks to the authors and journals that publish the findings of university studies that are being conducted. It is not a matter of turning a whole school curriculum into a brain based learning curriculum, which is absurd. The goal should be to use the knowledge of neuroscience in addition to the current curriculums to better serve the students ability to learn. The research and studies cannot be ignored; it should be the duty of any faculty member to look into the incorporation of brain ompatible curriculums. Advances in the knowledge of brain based learning comes from many diverse disciplines. New findings in the field are being established daily at major universities, the results are being published by many respected scientific journals across the world. Brain compatible learning environments are feasible and will benefit the learning environments of all students. References: T he statements above has been condensed, synthesized, and summarized from: Jenson, E, (2008) Brain Based Learning, Second Edition Emotional Intelligence Information: Retrieved from http://www. unh. du/emotional_intelligence Twelve Design Principles Based on Brain-Based Learning Research. Retrieved fromÃ http://www. designshare. com/Research/BrainBasedLearn98. htm. McLean, P, Triune Brain Theory, Retrieved from http://www. definingconcepts. net/DefiningConcepts/Triune_Brain. html Wilson, L, Dr. , Brain Based Education retrieved from http://uwsp. edu/education/lwilson/brain/bboverview. htm Teaching High Poverty Kids Using a High Impact Curriculum Retrieved from http://www. jensenlearning. com/news/teaching-high-poverty-kids-using-a-high-impact-curriculum/teaching-with-poverty-in-mind#more-79Ã Caine, G. Nummela-Caine, R. , ; Crowell, S. (1999) Mindshifts:Ã A Brain-Based Process for Restructuring Schools and Renewing Education, 2nd edition. Tucson, AZ:Ã Zephyr Press. Retrieved from http://uwsp. edu/education/lwilson/brain/bboverview. htm Caine, G. , Nummela-Caine, (1997) Education on the edge of possibility. Alexandria, VA: ASCDAssociation for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Retrieved from http://uwsp. edu/education/lwilson/brain/bboverview. htm DArcangelo, M. (2000). How does the brain develop? A conversation with Steven Peterson.
Wednesday, March 11, 2020
General Omar Bradley in World War II General of the Army Omar N. Bradley was a key American commander during World War II and later served as the first Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Graduating from West Point in 1915, he served stateside during World War I before advancing through the ranks during the interwar years. With the beginning of World War II, Bradley trained two divisions before serving under Lieutenant General George S. Patton in North Africa and Sicily. Known for his understated nature, he earned the nickname the G.I. General and later commanded the First U.S. Army and 12th Army Group in Northwest Europe. Bradley played a central role during the Battle of the Bulge and directed American forces as they drove into Germany. Early Life Born at Clark, MO on February 12, 1893, Omar Nelson Bradley was the son of schoolteacher John Smith Bradley and his wife Sarah Elizabeth Bradley. Though from a poor family, Bradley received a quality education at Higbee Elementary School and Moberly High School. After graduation, he began working for the Wabash Railroad to earn money to attend the University of Missouri. During this time, he was advised by his Sunday school teacher to apply to West Point. Sitting the entry exams at Jefferson Barracks in St. Louis, Bradley placed second but secured the appointment when the first place finisher was unable to accept it. West Point Entering the academy in 1911, he quickly took to the academys disciplined lifestyle and soon proved gifted at athletics, baseball in particular. This love of sports interfered with his academics, however he still managed to graduate 44th in a class of 164. A member of the Class of 1915, Bradley was classmates with Dwight D. Eisenhower. Dubbed the class the stars fell on, 59 of the class members ultimately became generals. World War I Commissioned as a second lieutenant, he was posted to the 14th Infantry and saw service along the US-Mexico border. Here his unit supported Brigadier General John J. Pershings Punitive Expedition which entered Mexico to subdue Pancho Villa. Promoted to first lieutenant in October 1916, he married Mary Elizabeth Quayle two months later. With the US entry into World War I in April 1917, the 14th Infantry, then at Yuma, AZ, was moved to the Pacific Northwest. Now a captain, Bradley was tasked with policing copper mines in Montana. Desperate to be assigned to a combat unit heading to France, Bradley requested a transfer several times but to no avail. Made a major in August 1918, Bradley was excited to learn that the 14th Infantry was being deployed to Europe. Organizing at Des Moines, IA, as part of the 19th Infantry Division, the regiment remained in the United States as a result of the armistice and influenza epidemic. With the U.S. Armys postwar demobilization, the 19th Infantry Division was stood down at Camp Dodge, IA in February 1919. Following this, Bradley was detailed to South Dakota State University to teach military science and reverted to the peacetime rank of captain. Fast Facts: General Omar N. Bradley Rank: General of the ArmyService: U.S. ArmyBorn: February, 12, 1893 in Clark, MODied: April 8, 1981 in New York, NYParents: John Smith Bradley and Sarah Elizabeth BradleySpouse: Mary Elizabeth Quayle, Esther BuhlerConflicts: World War II, Korean WarKnown For: D-Day (Operation Overlord), Operation Cobra, Battle of the Bulge Interwar Years In 1920, Bradley was posted to West Point for a four-year tour as a mathematics instructor. Serving under then-Superintendent Douglas MacArthur, Bradley devoted his free time to studying military history, with a special interest in the campaigns of William T. Sherman. Impressed with Shermans campaigns of movement, Bradley concluded that many of the officers who had fought in France had been misled by the experience of static warfare. As a result, Bradley believed that Shermans Civil War campaigns were more relevant to future warfare than those of World War I. Promoted to major while at West Point, Bradley was sent to the Infantry School at Fort Benning in 1924. As the curriculum stressed open warfare, he was able to apply his theories and developed a mastery of tactics, terrain, and fire and movement. Utilizing his prior research, he graduated second in his class and in front of many officers who had served in France. After a brief tour with the 27th Infantry in Hawaii, where he befriended George S. Patton, Bradley was selected to attend the Command and General Staff School at Fort Leavenworth, KS in 1928. Graduating the following year, he believed the course to be dated and uninspired. Departing Leavenworth, Bradley was assigned to the Infantry School as an instructor and served under future-General George C. Marshall. While there, Bradley was impressed by Marshall who favored giving his men an assignment and letting them accomplish it with minimal interference. In describing Bradley, Marshall commented that he was quiet, unassuming, capable, with sound common sense. Absolute dependability. Give him a job and forget it. Deeply influenced by Marshalls methods, Bradley adopted them for his own use in the field. After attending the Army War College, Bradley returned to West Point as an instructor in the Tactical Department. Among his pupils were the future leaders of the US Army such as William C. Westmoreland and Creighton W. Abrams World War II Begins Promoted to lieutenant colonel in 1936, Bradley was brought to Washington two years later for duty with the War Department. Working for Marshall, who was made Army Chief of Staff in 1939, Bradley served asÃ assistant secretary of the General Staff. In this role, he worked to identify problems and developed solutions for Marshalls approval. In February 1941, he was promoted directly to the temporary rank of brigadier general.Ã This was done to allow him to assume command of the Infantry School. While there he promoted the formation of armored and airborne forces as well as developed the prototype Officer Candidate School. With the US entry into World War II on December 7, 1941, Marshall asked Bradley to prepare for other duty. Given command of the reactivated 82nd Division, he oversaw its training before fulfilling a similar role for the 28th Division. In both cases, he utilized Marshalls approach of simplifying military doctrine to make it easier for newly recruited citizen-soldiers. In addition, Bradley utilized a variety of techniques to ease draftees transition to military life and boost morale while also implementing a rigorous program of physical training. As a result, Bradleys efforts in 1942, produced two fully trained and prepared combat divisions. In February 1943, Bradley was assigned command of X Corps, but before taking the position was ordered to North Africa by Eisenhower to troubleshoot problems with American troops in the wake of the defeat at Kasserine Pass. Lieutenant General Omar Bradley on the navigation bridge of USS Ancon (AGC-4), en route to the invasion of Sicily, 7 July 1943. With him is Captain Timothy Wellings, USN. US Naval History and Heritage Command North Africa Sicily Arriving, Bradley recommended that Patton be given command of the U.S. II Corps. This was done and the authoritarian commander soon restored the units discipline. Becoming Pattons deputy, Bradley worked to improve the fighting qualities of the corps as the campaign progressed.Ã As a result of his efforts, he ascended to command of II Corps in April 1943, when Patton departed to aid in planning the invasion of Sicily. For the remainder of the North African Campaign, Bradley ably led the corps and restored its confidence. Serving as part of Pattons Seventh Army, II Corps spearheaded the attack on Sicily in July 1943. During the campaign in Sicily, Bradley was discovered by journalist Ernie Pyle and promoted as the G.I. General for his unprepossessing nature and affinity for wearing a common soldiers uniform in the field. D-Day In the wake of the success in the Mediterranean, Bradley was selected by Eisenhower to lead the first American army to land in France and to be prepared to subsequently take over a full army group. Returning to the United States, he established his headquarters at Governors Island, NY and began assembling staff to assist him in his new role as commander of the First U.S. Army.Ã Returning to Britain in October 1943, Bradley took part in the planning for D-Day (Operation Overlord). Senior U.S. officers watching operations from the bridge of USS Augusta (CA-31), off Normandy, 8 June 1944. They are (from left to right): Rear Admiral Alan G. Kirk, USN, Commander Western Naval Task Force; Lieutenant General Omar N. Bradley, U.S. Army, Commanding General, U.S. First Army; Rear Admiral Arthur D. Struble, USN, (with binoculars) Chief of Staff for RAdm. Kirk; and Major General Ralph Royce, U.S. Army. National Archives and Records Administration A believer in employing airborne forces to limit German access to the coast, he lobbied for the use of the 82nd and 101st Airborne Divisions in the operation. As commander of the U.S. First Army, Bradley oversaw the American landings on Omaha and Utah Beaches from the cruiser USS Augusta on June 6, 1944. Troubled by the stiff resistance at Omaha, he briefly considered evacuating troops from the beach and sending the follow-on waves to Utah. This proved unnecessary and three days later he shifted his headquarters ashore. Northwest Europe As Allied forces built up in Normandy, Bradley was elevated to lead the 12th Army Group. As early attempts to push deeper inland failed, he planned Operation Cobra with the goal of breaking out of the beachhead near St. Lo. Commencing in late July, the operation saw a liberal use of air power before ground forces smashed through the German lines and began a dash across France. As his two armies, the Third under Patton and the First under Lieutenant General Courtney Hodges, advanced towards the German border, Bradley advocated for a thrust into the Saarland. Lieutenant General Sir Miles C. Dempsey (right) with the 21st Army Group commander, General Sir Bernard Montgomery (center), and U.S. First Army commander, Lieutenant General Omar Bradley (left), 10 June 1944. Public Domain This was denied in favor of Field Marshal Bernard Montgomerys Operation Market-Garden. While Market-Garden bogged down in September 1944, Bradleys troops, spread thin and short on supplies, fought brutal battles in the HÃ ¼rtgen Forest, Aachen, and Metz. In December, Bradleys front absorbed the brunt of the German offensive during the Battle of the Bulge. After stopping the German assault, his men played a key role in pushing the enemy back, with Pattons Third Army making an unprecedented turn north to relieve the 101st Airborne at Bastogne. During the fighting, he was angered when Eisenhower temporarily assigned First Army to Montgomery for logistical reasons. Promoted to general in March 1945, Bradley led 12th Army Group, now four armies strong, through the final offensives of the war and successfully captured a bridge over the Rhine at Remagen. In a final push, his troops formed the southern arm of a massive pincer movement which captured 300,000 German troops in the Ruhr, before meeting up with Soviet forces at the Elbe River. Postwar With the surrender of Germany in May 1945, Bradley was eager for a command in the Pacific. This was not forthcoming as General Douglas MacArthur was not in need of another army group commander. On August 15, President Harry S. Truman appointed Bradley to the head of the Veterans Administration. While not thrilled with the assignment, Bradley worked diligently to modernize the organization to meet the challenges it would face in the postwar years. Basing his decisions on the needs of veterans rather than political considerations, he built a nationwide system of offices and hospitals as well as revised and updated the G.I. Bill and arranged for job training. In February 1948, Bradley was appointed Army Chief of Staff to replace the departing Eisenhower. He remained in this post only eighteen months as he was named the first Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff on August 11, 1949. With this came a promotion to General of the Army (5-star) the following September. Remaining in this position for four years, he oversaw U.S. operations during the Korean War and was forced to rebuke General Douglas MacArthur for wishing to expand the conflict into Communist China. Later Life Retiring from the military in 1953, Bradley moved into the private sector and served as chairman of the board of the Bulova Watch Company from 1958 until 1973. Following the death of his wife Mary of leukemia in 1965, Bradley married Esther Buhler on September 12, 1966. During the 1960s, he served as a member of President Lyndon Johnsons Wise Men think tank and later acted as a technical advisor on the film Patton. Bradley died on April 8, 1981, and was buried at Arlington National Cemetery.
Friday, March 6, 2020
Modern Introduction Who is your hero? Most people when presented with a scenario to answer this question would think of a selfless character that braved the odds and rescued a situation that was getting out of hand. A hero is a person who is well-liked due to their successes and noble characteristics (The hero).Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Modern-Day Heroes in Society specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The likes of Martin Luther King Junior who advocated for equality among all races, Nobel Peace Prize Laureate Wangari Maathai who was buried in a papyrus casket for her love of nature, Clara Barton-an American activist; who risked her life on the battlefields of the Civil War to start the Red Cross and Oedipus of the Greek myths are all considered heroes by lots of people. Although the heroes are understood differently among individuals, they are ordinary persons who posses more or less similar characteristics and could be anybody whose actions touch another personÃ¢â¬â¢s life. Characteristics and Journey of a Hero Irrespective of gender, culture or traditions from which they are depicted, heroes possess some common characteristics. Although a hero could possibly possess all the five characteristics shared by heroism outlined by Miriam Polster ( 2-5), some could be more evident and overshadow others. Heroes and Heroines have respect for human life; they believe in the sanctity of life and often risk their lives for otherÃ¢â¬â¢s sake. They have faith in the effectiveness of their choices and would pursue them in spite of opposition and criticism they may face. They possess an original perspective and are not forced to accept and conform to agreements as they are but rather advocate for issues to be as they way should be. Heroism entails physical courage that makes one risk death and injury for otherÃ¢â¬â¢s sake as well as mental courage that drives one not to be limited by the accepted Ã¢â¬Å"tru ths.Ã¢â¬ The acts of heroes usually may have public impacts or may impact profoundly to an individual and pass unnoticed. The heroes usually go through a number of stages before they attain their desired destiny. Joseph Campbell ( 57) outlines the steps of the heroÃ¢â¬â¢s Journey. They reside in a normal world until they are Ã¢â¬Å"called to adventureÃ¢â¬ by the rise of a discovery or an event in need of help. They are faced with the task of refusing or accepting the call and enter a world of the unknown where they encounter a supernatural aid that helps them through their quest. They require a talisman and a helper along the way for success. They go through a series of tests that strengthen and prepare them for the final hurdle. The heroes finally encounter the supreme ordeal, pass it successfully and are finally rewarded for the hard toil. Their success changes their lives and the lives of those around them and are stand qualified e.g. for marriage, Kingship or Queen ship. Advertising Looking for essay on social sciences? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Modern-Day Heroes Today the definition of the hero above as Ã¢â¬Å"a mythological or legendary figure often of divine descent endowed with great strength or abilityÃ¢â¬ is long fading into history (Thomson 116-117). The meaning of a hero has changed and depends entirely on the time and reason for which one is considered a hero and parallel to the advancement of society, religion and politics to suit the wishes of those involved. This is because the characters of people have changed; people no longer live in those old days where societal rules were rigid and leadership hereditary. People strive to do good and those who take the task to the extreme end are considered heroes or do-gooders (Moore 2). Ã¢â¬Å"Social entrepreneursÃ¢â¬ as are commonly referred to are less interested in their success but rather on changing the system as a whole. Today extreme do-gooders focus their attention to environmental protection, improving the education of a child and eradication of poverty and diseases from the face of the earth. They are pleased to do good even though their actions may negatively affect them. A good example is that of the late professor Wangari Maathai from Kenya who advocated for environmental protection through a worldwide program Ã¢â¬Å"the Green Belt MovementÃ¢â¬ for planting trees in deforested zones and lost her parliamentary seat in the process. She however won the 2004 Nobel Peace Prize becoming the first Woman in East and Central Africa to win the prestigious award. Another example is by Erick Brockovich, a legal secretary who dedicated her efforts in petitioning against a service company for polluting a source of water for a community. Conclusion Heroes have tales of adventure written against their names and an audience to listen to them; however they go past the usual fame and celebrity status (Tollefson 1). They are people who dedicate themselves to simplifying tasks for others and live lives that others strive to emulate by setting standards not achievable by the common man yet encourage him to pursue. Heroes envision positive change and work towards it. Each person is faced with the same difficulties and the path they choose to follow in making their journey unrivaled is always different. People should be well aware of the mission of their journeys to successfully accomplish it and emerge as the ultimate hero. Gone are the days when heroes were considered supernaturalÃ¢â¬â¢s and enigmas, the future foresees a world where everyone strives to be their own hero.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Modern-Day Heroes in Society specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Campbell, Joseph. The Hero With a Thousand Faces. Novato Calif: New World Library, 2008. Web.. Moore, Jina. Extreme do-gooders Ã¢â¬â what makes the m tick? The Christian Science Monitor 7 September 2009: pp. 1-2. Web. Polster, Miriam. EveÃ¢â¬â¢s Daughters. Gestalt Journal (2001). Web.. Help me :The hero. 2011.. Web. 123helpme.com.. Thomson, Iain. Sparks in the Darkness: Deconstucting the Hero. Jackson: University Press of MIssissippi, 2005. pp. 116-117. Web.. Tollefson, Ted. Is a Hero Really Nothing but a Sandwich? Utne Reader May-June 1993. n. pag. Web..
Monday, February 24, 2020
Stake holder Research Paper - Essay Example The principle target of this examination paper is to guarantee that there is a solid reason revealed regarding why might a standard meeting feature have to be so prominent, and what reason made the meeting abruptly pulled in such measure of centering. As stated by the NBC report, this meeting itself raised an exceptionally intriguing and genuine point to be known as "Ought to understudies wear their school garbs in basic and auxiliary school?" Students should not wear uniforms at school, because they are too ordinary and boring, to force students wear uniforms in elementary and secondary school will strangle their personality and creativity. Reflecting on the question that was conveyed by NBC and its report shows that the meeting was examining around the contention of "Are school outfits helping or ruining." It began with to bringing up the actuality of in todays United States; almost one in five of people in general schools obliged their learner to wear their school garbs while they are in school. In addition, the meeting caught up by the verbal confrontation around two inverse purposes of perspectives towards the point spoke to by two instructive callings. The open deliberations from the feature was exceptionally powerful and bounteous of consistent considering, likewise, the dialect and inquiries that have connected are additionally sharp and loaded with euphoria. Notwithstanding, were those components the true reasons, which made the question so hot over the general population, were there any possible fascinating actualities and debate worth the discourse? As stated by the Butler, the vast extent of state funded schools, which upheld the strict clothing standard, respects the understudies in basic and optional school today. Regardless of the fact that the degree of schools obliged their people to wear, school regalia around private schools were exhibited a noteworthy climbing in the previous decades. Under this exploration, we find that the
Wednesday, February 19, 2020
Critically evaulate the view that international organisations and global governance systems are undemocratic - Essay Example Indeed, it is very much possible to see that global institutions such as International Monetary Fund (IMF), World Bank and World Trade Organisation (WTO) do play an active role in the governance, political and economic organisation of many countries from around the world. Importantly, the issue of deficit of democracy primarily arises from the fact that while the nation states are at least theoretically accountable to the national civil society, the international institutions are accountable to none. All the nation states do not wield equal power in many of the transnational institutions. Moreover, if we look at the internal structure and power balance within, most of the international institutions are tilting towards the rich countries of the Global South. Global Institutions, Global Governance and Lack of Global Democracy The making of accelerated globalisation was characterised by the shift of governance from the national to the global. The nation state is being increasingly chall enged by the forces of globalisation. At present, the democracy is solely expressed through national governments and their institutions. In other words, the national parliament is the only abode of democracy. However, the rise of international organisations has led to their growing clutch on the national economies, politics and policies. It is followed the rise of unaccountable forces of neoliberal capitalism which effectively surpass any idea of national and popular sovereignty. It has led to a kind of global elite consolidation as there exists no world parliament. Still, the absence of world parliament does not automatically translated as the absence of global sovereignty. Global sovereignty certainly exists as the consolidated and concentrated power of global market forces and their institutions. It is primarily because of this lack of democracy within, the meetings of international finance and trade institutions attract huge resistance from activists and political groups from ar ound the world. The voting rights in a major institution such international monetary fund is based on proportional vote wherein Ã¢â¬Ëone country, one voteÃ¢â¬â¢ principle is not followed. On the contrary, countries get their voting rights based on their economic share in the institution. The United States in particular and the West in general are also able to exert disproportional influence in the decision making bodes of IMF and World Bank. One of the major problems with international governance organisations is that they do not directly draw their legitimacy form any popular sources. In other words, the legitimacy of the global institutions is solely depended upon their ability to intervene and act decisively in certain situations and places. Although, there is a lot of talk on the emergence of a global civil society which could effectively counter the lack of democracy in global governance institutions, nothing yet has materialised. Conversely, the so-called global civil soci ety itself is predominantly dominated by many Non Governmental Organisations which are accountable not to the people but to the funding agencies. In the question of transparency too, the status of global transnational organisations is not very different from the global finance or political institutions. Here, the very lack of representation of the voice of the developing
Saturday, February 8, 2020
Life Span Research - Essay Example At certain foreseeable occasions in the developmental process, new and different abilities emerge that have no obvious originations from earlier developmental periods. These developmental plateaus represent a qualitative transformation in maturity. To assist the study of development, developmental tasks are characteristically divided into four primary domains: physical, cognitive, social, and emotional. This discussion first defines these development domains then applies these definitions to those of pre-school and adolescent age. Physical development refers to the growth of the body structure including muscles, bones and organs as well as comprising all motor and sensory development. Motor activity is dependent on muscle strength and coordination. Motor actions such as standing, sitting, and running involve the large muscles whereas speech, vision and the use of hands and fingers engage the smaller muscles of the body. Sensory development includes the five senses, sight, taste, touch, smell and hearing. Ã¢â¬Å"The coordination and integration of perceptual input from these systems are controlled by the central nervous systemÃ¢â¬ (Roditti, 2002, p. 11). Cognitive development describes activities such as thought, memory, reasoning, problem-solving and abstract thinking. The use of language necessitates symbolization and memory and is one of the most difficult of cognitive activities. The term language does not mean the spoken word, however. Speaking is a motor activity. Therefore, language and speech are operated by different areas of the brain. Comprehending and expressing language is a complex cognitive endeavor. Social development includes the childÃ¢â¬â¢s interactions with other people and involvement in social groups. The earliest social function is the attachment to mother leading to the Ã¢â¬Å"development of relationships with adults and peers, assumption of social roles, adoption of group values and norms, adoption of a moral system, and
Tuesday, February 4, 2020
Elaborate on the five interpersonal bases of power, five ways to minimize political activity, and at least five ways to manage organizational politics effectively - Essay Example People have reference power when others respect and like them. It is the perception of individual relationships that she/he has that creates her/his power over others. Expert power is derived from having knowledge or skill in a particular area. Such individuals are highly esteemed by organizations for their problem solving skills. Modes of minimizing political activities in an organization involve: Opening eyes and accepting politics exist within the organization and dealing with them adequately. Challenge political behaviors to maintain performance. Make things visible; transparency within any organization will reduce political activities. Walk the talk; honesty shuns politicking since it encourages transparency. Reduce vulnerabilities to political behaviors within an organization. Managing organizational politics effectively involves creation and implementations of clear policies and procedures, which at the end reduces ambiguity. Transparency; be open and visible with employees in key matters that affect them. Learn the rules of politics and apply them appropriately for success in an organization. Establish positive and credible impression in the eyes of employees and others in the organization to motivate them. Act in ways consistent with verbal communication to employees to portray walk the talk